RPR results were confirmed with a particle agglutination test (Sero Dia-TP. In this study, more recently acquired syphilis (“early syphilis”) was defined as TPPA confirmed RPR (⩾).Data were double entered using Epi-Info 6 and analysed using Stata 7 software.For waria, commercial sex locations were randomly selected from the sample frame, and all sex workers were approached at each location by trained field workers, including waria, who explained the study purposes and procedures.The overall refusal rate was 26%, and 241 waria were included in analysis.
There is evidence that sexual identities among those who engage in male-male sex are more fluid in Asia than in many industrialised countries, and a high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) also have sex with women.
In 2001, the government estimated that 110 000 Indonesians were infected with HIV, most of them people with high risk behaviours such as female sex workers and their clients, and injecting drug users.
No recent data were available to inform reliable estimates of infection acquired in sex between men.
The questionnaire differed slightly for the three groups in accordance with group characteristics.
Immediately after collection, blood samples were transferred to a cooler, and processed daily at the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Jakarta.